Monday, August 24, 2020

Fields v. Smith

Question: Clarify the case related toFields v. Smith. Answer: The ACLU and Lambda lawful had recorded a government claim in Wisconsin for the benefit of the three transgender ladies who were imprisoned there. The case raised test over the law of Wisconsin under which there is a bar on the entrance of sex reassignment medical procedure or hormone treatment for detainees in a jail and other in the care of the state. At first the specialists of the jail were permitted to decide the treatment that was appropriate for the detainees anyway this force has been stripped. Anyway as the case pushed ahead court request was gotten from the court and the customers kept on accepting treatment as the case pushed ahead (Fields v. Smith | Lambda Legal, 2016). Deficient subtleties, concerning the case was the way that there was no insights about the explanation for the why such a law has been set in any case and what was the section of society that it planned to ensure at the hour of origin. Along these lines supposition that will be that this law disregards the government Constitutions ensure for the equivalent insurance if the residents just as the assurance that is there against bizarre and remorseless discipline by banning the detainees who are transgender from getting to the clinical consideration. Further it should be considered that the main state in the nation that has a law for notwithstanding giving of medicinally fundamental consideration to transgender prisoners. The fundamental issues for the situation, in this way is whether the law in Wisconsin by which there is disallowance on the specialists of the jail from utilizing sex reassignment medical procedure or hormonal treatment for stepping detainees who have sexual orientation personality issue (GID) causes the prisoners enduring abnormal and unfeeling discipline under the Eight Amendment or equivalent insurance of laws was denied from them under the Amendment 14 (Fields v Smith, 2011). The gatherings that are included, in this gathering are the specialists whose forces had been limited by this law and the transgenders whose medicinal services has been confined and they have been denied of the equivalent. Other then this Wisconsin jails prisoners sued for having the law to be pronounced as being illegal facially. There was an intrigue from the State of Wisconsin to the Seventh Circuit. It was attested by the Seventh Circuit that this discipline would be brutal and unordinary, hence disregarding the Eight Amendment by retaining of sex reassignment medical procedure or hormone treatment from detainees who are experiencing an intense GID (FindLaw's United States Seventh Circuit case and assessments., 2016). On the off chance that the choice would have been permitting the law it would antagonistically influence the soundness of care of the detainees that were detainees in jail. It is important to realize that in circumstances where an individual is experiencing GID, it can prompt despondency, self-mutilation and even passing without anyone else hurt. Hence in circumstance where the choice would have been anything separate from it the result would have been grave. The law of Wisconsin inversion would guarantee that the prisoners who are transgender are getting clinical consideration that is essential and it is likewise helping the dispersing of fantasies that encompass the wellbeing needs of an individual experiencing GID. For this situation and in different cases with comparative it should be noticed that endeavor is being to guarantee that the transgenders have the choice of promotion social insurance that is proper for them and there is no sort of segregation in doing. For this situation there was establishment had been set down for a limitation that is incredible on the legialtures capacity to sanction the clinical treatment preclusions, the likewise that it is guaranteed that that the use of limitation isn't simply restricted to the detainees who are influenced by this enactment yet ought to be analogs to the Fourth amendment. Zubik v. Burwell On account of Zubik v. Burwel in the Supreme Court of United States on whether other than the houses of worship different strict foundations ought to be absolved from the order of preventative, a regulatioin which the US Department of Health and Human Services embraced under the Affordable Care Act which necessitates that the businesses who are non-church are to be secured for their females a specific prophylactic. This case is fixated on the exception under the legitimate necessities that has been given under the Affordable Care Acts under which the businesses are required to take care of the expense of contraception without the copays being charged. There are a few managers who can quit this anyway to have the option to do so they are required to round out a type of two pages clarifying why they are doing as such. It has been contended by the offended parties of this case they structures ought not need to be filled by them since doing so would make them complicit towards giving contraception to ladies which isn't in accordance with their strict conviction. The principle issue that is there for this situation is that whether the strict dissidents are permitted to resist even in the circumstance when this noncompliance would put a weight on others? There is absence of point by point foundation of this case as the case is an exceptionally late case therefore there must be a suspicion made with respect to who this case was affecting other than the real offended parties and litigants of the case (Duncan, 2016). This case has no single offended party rather there are seven related cases which has been viewed as together. This measure is a genuinely regular one in different cases. In the gathering the lead offended party is of the Roman Catholic see of Pittsburgh, Pa Bishop David A. Zubik. As per the Pittsburgh Post Gazzete (Bishop Zubik lead offended party in Obamacare challenge in Supreme Court, 2016) he drives a joint intrigue from the bishoprics which is situated in the City of Brother Love and Erie, Pa. Other than him the better known offended party of this case are the Little Sisters of the Poor nuns, who are running a nursing home for 13,000 roughly older poor. There are three private Christian advanced education who are remembered for the rundown of offended parties Sothern Nazarene University, Geneva College and East Texas Baptist University. The secretary of United States Health and Human Services Sylvia Burwell is the cases litigant, at the end of the day it tends to be expressed the administration of U.S. is the person who is being sued. Other than the previously mentioned parties, the ladies are the ones that are to a great extent influenced by this case and are the imperceptible gatherings to the choice of this case. Since it is an outsider common safety net provider who takes over once the administrative work has been marked by the strict managers, a contention is being advanced by the barrier expresses that the purpose of concern no longer stay strict opportunity and there is really an encroachment of the privileges of the ladies by these strict organizations and not assurance of their opportunity of religion. There is worry that has been raised by the womens rights lobbyist as for the openness of preventive anti-conception medication for ladies for the situation there was a decision in the kindness of the offended parties. In the event that there is each other managerial band for hopping for the ladies through may make access of anti-conception medication incredibly troublesome. This case could build up a point of reference for those concerning when strictly associated business or strict establishments could keep away from or avoid a wide range of law that are official on every other person (Zubik v. Burwell Briefs Explore Potential Compromise (Update), 2016). A for each curiam administering was given by the court on sixteenth of May 2016 in which the choice of the Circuit courts of Appeals choices were cleared and the case was remanded to those courts for being reexamined in the light of the position which the gatherings had attested in their supplemental briefs. Since it had been concurred by the Petitioners that there was no encroachment of their strict needs where there was prerequisite for doing simply contracting for an arrangement in which inclusion for all or a preventative has not been incorporated it was held by the court that the gatherings should be given an open door for explanation and refining how practically speaking this methodology would function and for settling any issue that remaining parts remarkable. In leaving from the treatment that is regular for the decision of per curiam, Roberts CJ read resoundingly the decision. The view that there was no view with respect to the cases merit was communicated by the Supreme Cou rt. In a supposition that is agreeing it was noted by Justice Sotomayor and Justice Ginsburg noted in before cases that these directions have been disregarded before by a portion of the lower courts and an alert was given to the lower courts for not perusing any of the Supreme Courts activity as for the case. The English Circuits assessment on account of Sharpe Holdings was refered to for instance which was the main Court of Appeals choice which had maintained the position that had been taken by the offended parties on account of Zubik. The strength of the a large number of ladies will be influenced including that of ladies that are school matured. The understudies who have been selected for the social insurance designs through the colleges will be rendered unequipped for getting any sort of conception prevention if the school that they are going to chooses for quitting the reasons that are strict in nature. It will be upon the alumni for thinking about how contraception inclusion would be gotten by them for the situation boss has contradicted to offer the equivalent for the reasons that are acknowledged. This would influence at last ladies who might need to experience systems that are progressively convoluted in strategy for making sure about of conception prevention. References Priest Zubik lead offended party in Obamacare challenge in Supreme Court. (2016).Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Recovered 17 June 2016, from party in-strict test to-ACA-under the watchful eye of Supreme-Court/stories/201603210021 Duncan, K. (2016).Supplemental Briefs in Zubik v.

Saturday, August 22, 2020

War Humanity Where Do We Go From Here Essay Example For Students

War Humanity: Where Do We Go From Here? Exposition WAR AND HUMANITY: WHERE DO WE GO FROM HERE?. There is a normal of twenty progressing wars on the planet at some random time. Some are inward respectful wars, others are between countries. Be that as it may, the motivation behind this postulation isn't to report fighting, yet its demonstration. This incorporates the development of regular and atomic fighting, the potential impact of an atomic war and why it is fundamental for countries to battle war. This investigation will be founded on an investigation of Gwyn dwyer?s seven-section arrangement, ? War ?. The main different references used to aggravate this proposal will be articulations from previous heads of state, as comparing to the subject of war. War is an irreplaceable piece of development an is found at each section of mankind's history. It is the summit of the fundamental endurance impulse when incited. In the early hundreds of years, conventional fighting utilized the utilization of hoplite troopers and rangers who met at a booked area and battled equally. The seventeenth century changed the guidelines of fighting, starting with Napoleon, who expanded the size of fight in the Baradino church in 1812. We will compose a custom exposition on War Humanity: Where Do We Go From Here? explicitly for you for just $16.38 $13.9/page Request now The French Revolution denoted the ascent of present day patriotism, with regular citizens electing to join the military. The idea of National Mobilization was presented, however not affected until the American Civil war. The Industrial Revolution created new weapons, for example, the assault rifle and the tank. These weapons guaranteed a more prominent size of demolition than was once in the past achieved. The two universal wars denoted the best occasions in present day history. Aside from disposing of conventional for what was named ? ordinary? fighting, they additionally disturbed the world request and set up for worldwide devastation. With each war, there were new innovative advancements in weaponry, which were normally followed at a more slow pace, by technique. Just because, on September fifteenth, 1915, battle was presented on a non military personnel front, by the London besieging. Complete war was another thought created to join adversary regular folks as focuses as they were the foundation of the war business. The nuclear bombings of Nagasaki and Hiroshima are maybe the best exhibition of the advancement of concoction fighting and its pulverization potential. What was then known as Conventional fighting has become like an imperiled species. Numerous countries have depended on the collection of atomic innovation to ensure their territoriality. A portion of these are the U.S, Russia, the U.K, France, China, Israel, India and conceivably Iraq. Unexpectedly, the danger of atomic war fills in as the best counteraction of war today. Atomic weapons are conceivably the best danger to humankind, other than an Earth-wide temperature boost and the comet focused on earth, and furthermore the major balancing out factor for world harmony. Robert Oppenheimer said of the nuclear bomb, after it was manufactured, ?I am become passing, the Destroyer of Worlds. ? This announcement is increasingly precise of the intensity of the atomic bomb. There are by and by over a thousand atomic warheads in Europe, which has been anticipated to be the battlefront of World War III. While the U.S claims that the utilization of their atomic gadgets might be if completely essential, the Russians ensure a savage absolute counter. When does it become important to battle an atomic war?. At the point when one side assaults the enemy?s atomic bases maybe. The finish of human advancement would be diminished to the irrationally crude idea of ?use?em or lose?em?. While Nuclear innovation can successfully decimate the world, it likewise fills in as the best vehicle of harmony keeping. This is the thing that Thomas Alva Edison imagined when he anticipated, ?There will one day spring from the mind of science a machine or power so frightful in its possibilities, so completely frightening that even man, the warrior, who will set out torment and passing so as to deliver torment and demise, will be dismayed thus relinquish war until the end of time. While man?s brain can make, man?s character can control.? His idealism and confidence in mankind ought to be hailed. Be that as it may, in this time of degenerate and flippant leadersand they do exist, the future could come down to a mix-up made by an unreasonable man showcasing his youth war dreams. .ua028e7e5a9b522a859b86122367c0fee , .ua028e7e5a9b522a859b86122367c0fee .postImageUrl , .ua028e7e5a9b522a859b86122367c0fee .focused content territory { min-stature: 80px; position: relative; } .ua028e7e5a9b522a859b86122367c0fee , .ua028e7e5a9b522a859b86122367c0fee:hover , .ua028e7e5a9b522a859b86122367c0fee:visited , .ua028e7e5a9b522a859b86122367c0fee:active { border:0!important; } .ua028e7e5a9b522a859b86122367c0fee .clearfix:after { content: ; show: table; clear: both; } .ua028e7e5a9b522a859b86122367c0fee { show: square; progress: foundation shading 250ms; webkit-change: foundation shading 250ms; width: 100%; darkness: 1; progress: mistiness 250ms; webkit-change: haziness 250ms; foundation shading: #95A5A6; } .ua028e7e5a9b522a859b86122367c0fee:active , .ua028e7e5a9b522a859b86122367c0fee:hover { murkiness: 1; progress: obscurity 250ms; webkit-change: haziness 250ms; foundation shading: #2C3E50; } .ua028e7e5a9b522a859b86122367c0fee .focused content zone { width: 100%; position: relativ e; } .ua028e7e5a9b522a859b86122367c0fee .ctaText { fringe base: 0 strong #fff; shading: #2980B9; text dimension: 16px; textual style weight: striking; edge: 0; cushioning: 0; content embellishment: underline; } .ua028e7e5a9b522a859b86122367c0fee .postTitle { shading: #FFFFFF; text dimension: 16px; text style weight: 600; edge: 0; cushioning: 0; width: 100%; } .ua028e7e5a9b522a859b86122367c0fee .ctaButton { foundation shading: #7F8C8D!important; shading: #2980B9; outskirt: none; fringe range: 3px; box-shadow: none; text dimension: 14px; textual style weight: intense; line-tallness: 26px; moz-outskirt span: 3px; content adjust: focus; content enrichment: none; content shadow: none; width: 80px; min-stature: 80px; foundation: url( arrow.png)no-rehash; position: outright; right: 0; top: 0; } .ua028e7e5a9b522a859b86122367c0fee:hover .ctaButton { foundation shading: #34495E!important; } .ua028e7e5a9b 522a859b86122367c0fee .focused content { show: table; stature: 80px; cushioning left: 18px; top: 0; } .ua028e7e5a9b522a859b86122367c0fee-content { show: table-cell; edge: 0; cushioning: 0; cushioning right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-adjust: center; width: 100%; } .ua028e7e5a9b522a859b86122367c0fee:after { content: ; show: square; clear: both; } READ: Women Poetry of world war one Essay Why is war fundamental?. Is it only to fulfill a fundamental .

Sunday, July 19, 2020

Threat Of New Entrants

Threat Of New Entrants INTRODUCTIONPorter believed that the possibility of new entrants had a significant part to play in developing and changing the competitive dynamics of any industry. Porter’s definition helped people see this threat as substantial and influential. According to his model, this threat changes the competitive environment and directly impacts the profitability of an existing firm. If there is a higher threat of new entrants, this means that there are low barriers to entry and there is high possibility that the industry profit potential will decrease as a whole. This is because more competitors will fight for the same amount of business. Sales and market shares will be redistributed and there may be an effect on price and product quality.Means of Entry into a MarketHow a new firm enters a market can happen in a number of ways:Take-over: A company from outside the industry may take-over an existing firm, thereby avoiding any of the traditional barriers to entry within the firm. This firm may bring new and innovative expertise to the industry, thus changing the competitive dynamics for everyone.Diversification: Product diversification from existing firms into other categories.Competitive advantage: Foreign based competition, through development of a specific competitive advantage can also be a threat.Demand: Increased demand may result in increased prices thereby allowing a new entrant to make use of this increase and offset any high costs of market entry.Control: Existing firms may choose to control how a new firm enters the market rather than attempt to stop any new competitors from emerging.DETERMINING NATURE OF THREAT Within the five forces model, the factor of Threat of New Entrants analyzes how likely it is for a new entrant or entrants to enter the competitive environment a company operates within. There is less chance of this happening if there are at least some form of barriers to entry into the industry such as strict regulations, need for specialized knowledge or high investment requirements. Conversely, there is less chance of new companies entering the market if there is significant profit potential and not many obstacles in the way to achieving this profit. © Entrepreneurial Insights based on the concept of Porters 5 ForcesIn this article, we will look at an 1) introduction to the threat of new entrants, 2) determining the nature of the threat, 3) responding to new entrants â€" strategic entry deterrence, and 4) an example of and the threat of new entrants.INTRODUCTIONPorter believed that the possibility of new entrants had a significant part to play in developing and changing the competitive dynamics of any industry. Porter’s definition helped people see this threat as substantial and influential. According to his model, this threat changes the competitive environment and directly impacts the profitability of an existing firm. If there is a higher threat of new entrants, this means that there are low barriers to entry and there is high possibility that the industry profit potential will decrease as a whole. This is because more competitors will fight for the same amount of business. Sales and market shares will be redist ributed and there may be an effect on price and product quality.Means of Entry into a MarketHow a new firm enters a market can happen in a number of ways:Take-over: A company from outside the industry may take-over an existing firm, thereby avoiding any of the traditional barriers to entry within the firm. This firm may bring new and innovative expertise to the industry, thus changing the competitive dynamics for everyone.Diversification: Product diversification from existing firms into other categories.Competitive advantage: Foreign based competition, through development of a specific competitive advantage can also be a threat.Demand: Increased demand may result in increased prices thereby allowing a new entrant to make use of this increase and offset any high costs of market entry.Control: Existing firms may choose to control how a new firm enters the market rather than attempt to stop any new competitors from emerging.DETERMINING NATURE OF THREATThere may be many ways to determin e whether there is an active threat to a market or industry from new entrants. Most of these can be categorized within the potential barriers to entry that exist for that industry.Entry barriersConditions within a competitive environment that affect a company’s decision to enter into a market or not are called barriers to entry. These barriers may make it easy or difficult for a business to enter into the market and establish their presence. Barriers may exist in some industries or in some markets but not in others. There is also a chance that they exist but are not enforced strictly. There are many types of barriers to entry including those created by the government, by the existing companies, by the nature of the business and by the existing industry structure.Types of Barriers to Entry © Entrepreneurial InsightsThere are many types of barriers to entry into a market. Some of these include:Economies of Scale: When manufacturing or selling at a large scale, companies are able to avail cost advantages because per unit costs of the product fall. So the more the company produces in quantity the more the benefit. When existing companies have this advantage, it can act as a barrier to entry because a new entrant will have to try to match the scale to achieve the same cost advantage as the existing company. This may not be possible at the initial stage.A Differentiated Product: If the product being sold by the existing company or companies is highly differentiated or enjoys strong brand loyalty, then this can act as a strong barrier to entry. The new entrant will have to invest in creating a product with newer and unique features and benefits that surpass those offered by the old company. In addition, there will need to be strong efforts to break existing brand loyalties and shift them to a new untested company.High Capital Costs: If an industry requires huge capital investments at the onset, then this will act as a barrier to entry for many of the potential entrants. Only those will attempt to enter the competitive fray who have the resources to make this high initial investment.Other Cost Advantages: Apart from those cost benefits that come from economies of scale, there are other advantages that an existing firm may enjoy. These include access to the best suppliers, an understanding of existing materials and knowledge of their quality, possession of any necessary and important patents, and proprietary information and technological knowledge. There are also learning advantages, achieved over years of business and experience.Cost of Switching: The cost associated with a consumer’s move from one company or product or another is called the switching cost. If there are significant switching costs, then a new entrant may not be able to create means o f removing these. Or, they may have to offer significant advantage to counter these switching costs at their own expense.Distribution Network: Often, distribution relationships are well established and may prove to be a strong barrier to entry for a new company. A new entrant will obviously need access to these distribution channels but will need to invest extra in order to engage distributors who have established relations with existing competitors.Suppliers: As with distributors, suppliers may be vital to the operations of a new business. Existing suppliers may have contracts or loyalties with existing companies and may prove to be difficult to form relationships with.Legal and Government Created Barriers: Government and regulatory requirements such as permits and licenses may be a strong barrier to entry. There may also be laws governing ways to conduct business that may conflict with a company’s practices in other countries.Barriers to Exit: Interestingly, barriers to exit may act as a deterrent to entry by new companies. If a company is unable to easily leave a competitive environment in case business does not work out, then it will have to stay and compete even if that is a detrimental business practice. In this case, the company may choose to not enter the market in the first place.Analyzing Entry BarriersWhen analyzing the threat of new entrants, there are two things to keep in mind. One is that not all possible barriers to entry may apply to all organizations, and two, the existence of barriers to entry does not mean that the decision to enter the market should be cancelled. Instead, there needs to be an analysis and understanding of these barriers and strategies formed to counter these threats. As an existing company, it is also a good idea to keep a check on the industry dynamics to anticipate the threat of new entrants as the industry changes and evolves. Some questions to ask are given below. These may help in determining if the barriers to entr y are low or high. These will then directly impact whether the threat of new entrants is high or low.Does profitability require economies of scale?Are products generic and undifferentiated?Are brand names strong and well recognized?Is there a need for high initial capital investment?Are there any significant switching costs for consumers?Is it possible to align with and access existing distribution channels?Is location an issue?Is there any proprietary technology required?Is there any proprietary or specialized raw material required?How complicated are the government regulations, laws and policies?How strong is the expected retaliation from existing firms?Answering these questions realistically and candidly will help a company establish the barriers surrounding a potential new market or its own market and consequently, the nature of the threat from new entrants.RESPONDING TO NEW ENTRANTS â€" STRATEGIC ENTRY DETERRENCE © Entrepreneurial InsightsExisting firms in the market can take concrete steps to discourage new entrants from making moves to enter the market. These steps, or strategic entry deterrence, can be any action towards creating or strengthening barriers to entry for the industry. Not all of these activities are positive actions however, and several can come under anti-competitive practices and may open a company up to scrutiny and in violation of competition laws and regulations.Some of these activities include:Limit Pricing: A company may choose to produce a larger output of products at a lower price than what competitors would be able to sell at if they were to enter the market. This strategy is known as limit pricing. If this method is used successfully, not only will the incumbent affect price, but will also end up serving a larger share of the market, thus leaving less open for a competitor. A company may only be able to do this if it has been enjoying higher than normal profits fo r a whole and has the capacity to increase production at minimal cost increases. In addition, it is only a viable strategy if the profits earned at limit pricing are still higher than what would be risked if a competitor was to enter the market.Signaling: If information regarding an existing firm’s operations is not widely available, then this company can use different moves to send signals that will affect a potential new entrant’s decision to enter a market or not. Since the new company will be assuming information, the incumbent can send any signal it wants to achieve the desired results. An example could be limit pricing, thereby sending a signal of potential lack of substantial profits. Any signal sent needs to be backed by actual ability to make the signal last over a longer period of time.Preemptive Deterrence: Another way to hold off competitors is to engage customers such that switching becomes a less viable or desirable option. This can be achieved through the creation of strong brand loyalty, strong market visibility, special benefits or promotions, or some form of memberships of contracts that need to be completed. These strategies may warrant price drops or special offers from a new entrant which will be at the cost of profit margins and may end up discouraging entry into the market.Predatory Pricing: One form of strategic deterrence is predatory pricing, where a company may price below its actual profits. The idea is to discourage entry into the market or drive a competitor out of business. Once this end is achieved, the incumbent will simply raise prices back up to former levels. An aggressive strategy, this method sends a clear signal to the potential new entrant that strong retaliation can be expected in the market. Though this method seems to be extreme in terms of the lost profit, it has long term benefits of not only deterring the current new entrant threat but also any future threats by establishing an aggressive reputation of the incu mbent.This action can come under anti-trust practices and monopoly concerns so the decision to use this should be taken after careful consideration of possible repercussions.  Predicting Incumbent ResponseHow an incumbent firm or firms respond to the threat of a new entrant can depend on a number of factors. No all industries and not all companies will respond in a similar way. In addition, the strength and aggression of the response can also vary according to current market conditions, trends and consumer behavior.Some instances where a strong reaction can be expected include:If there has been an established history of aggressive response from incumbents in an industry, then the likelihood of this behavior being repeated is high.If the existing firms have strong cash flows, strong brand loyalty, strong market visibility, established partnerships with distributors and suppliers and a high capacity to produce goods then there is a strong chance that they will protect their position i n the market with a strong response to potential new competitors.If an incumbent has committed to the industry and in the low run seeks to stay relevant and competitive, then it is highly likely that it will try to prevent new entrants from joining the fray.If the industry growth has been slow or has slowed down over time, there will be stronger motivation for a company to protect its sales and market share by not allowing a new company to come in and steal a part of the pie. In this case, a hard stance should be expected by a new entrant.EXAMPLE AMAZON.COMThe Company © Wikimedia, an international e-commerce company, went online in 1995 from the USA. It remains the largest online retailer in the world with separate websites for the US, Mexico, Brazil, Canada, the UK, France, Germany, Italy, Spain, Japan, China, India and Australia. Additional country specific sites are being developed with international shipping available on some products to other parts of the world.Amazon began as an online supplier of books. Operations soon expanded to include items such as DVDs, CDs, video and audio downloads, software, video games, electronics, clothes, furniture, food items, children’s items and toys, as well as jewelry. The company has also diversified into consumer electronics production and distribution with the most popular items being the Kindle E-book reader and Kindle Fire tablets. Another new technology being offered is cloud computing services.Threat of New EntrantsGiven the nature of the business, there is always a threat of new entrants as it is relatively less costly to enter the market and setup operations. There is no additional cost incurred to set up any physical stores and locations. In addition, traditional established physical stores can easily move into online retailing and bring with them their substantial consumer base. These stores such as Target or Walmart, already enjoy economies of scale, have recognizable brands and a strong supply chain. So they do pose strong competition to Amazon.That said, the threat from brand new entrants remains low as it would be nearly impossible for a new company to match the cost advantages, economies of scale and variety of offering as These advantages will deter most brand new entrants to the market.Substantial Economies of ScaleAmazon works with over 10,000 vendors and boasts an impressive 75 percent repeat purchasers. Its market capitalization is substantially ahead of its nearest competitors.First Mover AdvantageAs the pioneer online retailer, A mazon has the necessary brand awareness and credibility as a strong reliable presence in the market.Massive product VarietyWay beyond a bookstore now, provides any type of product there is in its online stores. This means that there is a strong supplier base relationship that cannot be replicated. In addition, as a bookseller and a provider of other entertainment channels such as movies, videos and music, has established relationships with publishers, producers, movie studies and music producers which are not easy to form and replicate.Image credit:  Wikimedia commons under public domain.

Thursday, May 21, 2020

A Considerable Speck By Robert Frost - 1257 Words

A Considerable Speck - Analysis Sometimes, the most insignificant object can hold infinite meaning. â€Å"A Considerable Speck,† by Robert Frost tell us of a story representing a legacy, with the main thematic statement revolving around all entities having meaning if an individual were to look close enough. The title of the poem, an oxymoron in itself epitomizes an entity that would have otherwise been overlooked almost immediately by any other person. As the reader progresses through the poem, it becomes a distinct possibility that Frost himself was writing the poem as the events were unfolding live, actually seeing the dust mite skittering across his paper and documenting his thoughts via poetry. This particular element of thought expression can be seen when he expresses his statements â€Å"Plainly with an intelligence I dealt. It seemed too tiny to have room for feet, Yet must have had a set of them complete, To express how much it didn’t want to die.† (15-18 ) further cementing his judgment into the pillars of his poetry. Throughout the poem, these thoughts can be connected to not just one particular dust mite, or â€Å"speck,† but other entities as well. The poem begins with a line immediately drawing attention to the subject, â€Å"A speck that would have been beneath my sight.† (1.) This line is oxymoronic in the sense that, although the speaker acknowledges that the speck was beneath his gaze, he still feels the need to validate the object’s existence in his statements. This, alongShow MoreRelated Fire And Ice - Compared To 4 Other Poems Essay1607 Words   |  7 Pagesthink Robert Frost is a understandable, but yet an unconventional poet. Frost wrote in his own style, and as a result, he took quite a bit of heat from the critics of his period. Frost has an elegant style of writing descriptive and understandable poems. I am going to tell you about the five best pieces he has ever written. First off, amp;quot;A Considerable Speckamp;quot; is a unusual poem about Frost noticing a tiny speck on his paper. Upon further observation, Frost notices that the speck is

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Human Resources in Tanglewood Case Example

Essays on Human Resources in Tanglewood Case Case Study Human Resources: Tanglewood Case Part Human Resources: Tanglewood Case Part Employees are the most essential resource for every firm, as they are the key implementers of company decisions, goals and strategic plans. Therefore, every business should have HR processes that allow it to attract, train and retain the best talents in the market. Tanglewood needs to develop a selection plan that combines the best staffing qualities and quantities for optimal performance. In order to do this, the firm must ensure selection practices that align the output of its workforce with its goals and objectives. The aim of this report is to analyze the company strategy of Tanglewood, and recommend staffing levels in line with these strategies. Business Strategy Tanglewood’s vision and mission include the involvement of its employees in key decision-making processes; however, this may be limited because the human resources management is not standardized across stores. However, the employees working at the stores already have the company culture at heart since they have already been receiving information about company performance from their department heads, and they have seen other forms of participatory management style at work (Vance and Paik, 2010). The firm aims to foster teamwork in its attempts to ensure employee as well as customer satisfaction, and profitability; all without compromising one to favor another. Though the firm has been having success in encouraging peer support and sharing of tasks by employees, this may change if the management decides to adopt a new human resource management style. Therefore, the main concern for the firm about the new approach is if it will be able to retain the beneficial components of the old system, and introduce new concepts that will increase efficiency and effectiveness. Finally, the human resource management function in the firm should be centralized, mainly to ensure uniformity and curb redundancies in the system. However, this may interfere with the employee development program in which future managers are trained as they work to ensure continuity of company culture, which is a factor that the company should consider while designing the new system. Strategic Staffing Decisions Staffing Levels Acquire or Develop Talent: The firm should develop its own talent; this is because the management will have the time and capacity to inculcate company culture into new employees. Talent that has been developed somewhere else may not have the values of Tanglewood; and employees may take longer to learn the new standards of workmanship since they already have other values in them (Pynes, 2008). Hire yourself or Outsource: The firm should outsource from firms that specialize in recruiting for others; since these firms do this as their main business, there is an increased likelihood that Tanglewood will benefit from the high quality that results from specialization. Tanglewood will also benefit from the databases of these firms, and will specify its requirements for new recruits (Catano, 2009). External or Internal Hiring: Tanglewood should balance between hiring from outside the firm and promoting its own employees. This means that the firm should always hire internally trained professionals, except if certain skills are needed and none of the existing employees has the skills. This will not only enable the firm to save on hiring externally, but will also employ people who are familiar with the company culture and objectives (Daft, 2011). Core or Flexible Workforce: The firm should have a flexible workforce since the world economy has been characterized by rapid and unpredictable fluctuations. This will enable the firm to reduce or increase the size of its workforce while incurring little or no costs. Core workforce may have shortcomings when the market has a shortage of the skills that Tanglewood would like to outsource (Catano, 2009). Hire or Retain: The recruitment process at Tanglewood should be centered towards maximizing employee retention, especially due to the prohibitive costs of acquiring a new workforce. In addition, employees will participate in management activities if they are familiar with the implementation of the company strategic plan (Vance and Paik, 2010). National or Global: Staffing at Tanglewood stores should be global to enable the firm to take advantage of different market prices of labor, such that the firm can hire employees economically. In addition, having employees from all over the world is advantageous for the company’s Corporate Social Responsibility (Daft, 2011). Attract or Relocate: Attracting employees from the region of operation is always the best option; employees from the local area understand the local people best, and this is invaluable if the company wants to offer specialized customer services for the locals. In addition, relocating employees from other stores can be expensive and strain the company budget that is already under pressure due to market changes (Catano, 2009). Overstaff or understaff: Since Tanglewood will adopt a flexible workforce; the firm should overstaff its stores by a slight margin. Overstaffing is helpful in circumstances when there is a high season, and the firm has to deal with increased number of customers, in which case Tanglewood should engage all its employees to deal with the workload (Vance and Paik, 2010). Short or Long-Term Focus: Tanglewood should focus on the long-term; therefore, all employees should be trained with their long term effects on the firm in consideration. Treating them like this creates a feeling of ownership or belonging and they tend to view Tanglewood as a place they can always return from college or other workplaces (Mathis and Jackson, 2011). Staffing Quality Person/Job or Person/Organization Match: Tanglewood should focus on a person’s ability to work in the firm rather than their suitability for the job. This is because a person may have the best skills in the market, but their beliefs and the way of working may be incompatible with company objectives. For instance, a person may be professionally skilled but not have the necessary skills to work in a team. On the other hand, if a person is compatible with the firm, then they can acquire the necessary skills while on the job, especially from peers at Tanglewood (Vance and Paik, 2010). Specific or General KSAOs: Tanglewood should hire people with general knowledge, skills, abilities, and other characteristics. As opposed to specialists who are limited to working in one job position, a person with general KSAOs is more versatile and can be trained to work in any department if need be. For instance, if the company does not need a certain skill, a person with general KSAOs can be trained to work in another position, but a specialist would have to be laid off (Pynes, 2008). Exceptional or Acceptable Workforce Quality: Tanglewood should employ people who are not satisfied just by achieving bare minimum, which means that the firm should employ people with a capacity of exceptional work quality. Acceptable workforce quality is enough to sustain the firm in its current state; however, if the management wants the firm to have any progress, then it should hire exceptional individuals (Daft, 2011). Active or Passive Diversity: Tanglewood should practice active diversity for its employees; each employee should be encouraged to shun conformity and express their individuality as long as it does not interfere with the company’s goals and objectives. Active diversity promotes innovation and creates a favorable public image for the firm. In addition, each employee should be a person capable of working with different people, a characteristic that should be improved on during induction (Mathis and Jackson, 2011). Conclusion By following the suggestions laid out above, Tanglewood will be able encourage teamwork and participatory management as its main tools for achievement of the strategic plan. Some considerations made in making the choices include the need for the firm to keep costs at a minimum and maximize revenue, and remain competitive even in the face of fast expanding firms. This means careful planning, implementation, and improvement of the company recruitment mechanisms on a continual basis. References Catano, V. M. (2009). Recruitment and selection in Canada. Michigan: Cengage Learning. Daft, R. L. (2011). Management. Michigan: Cengage Learning. Mathis, R. L., Jackson, J. H. (2011). Human resource management: Essential perspectives. Michigan: Cengage Learning. Pynes, J. E. (2008). Human resources management for public and nonprofit organizations: A strategic approach. San Francisco: John Wiley and Sons. Vance, C. M., Paik, Y. (2010). Managing a global workforce: Challenges and opportunities in international human resource management. Armonk: M.E. Sharpe.

Parenting Styles and Culture Free Essays

Given the diverse cultures that can shape parenting behavior, some basic assumptions regarding the links between parenting styles and developmental outcomes may not be universal. Much research has been conducted on the different parenting styles across cultures. There are also many myths about which parenting style is the best or the most beneficial to the social development of children. We will write a custom essay sample on Parenting Styles and Culture or any similar topic only for you Order Now Reviewing past literature on this subject matter reveals that the authoritarian parenting style produced more overt aggression and many more social interaction difficulties among young children. Recent research point to the theory that the best parenting style is dictated by the culture in which it is practiced. A study by Whaley (2000) states that although a positive correlation between the use of physical discipline (i. e. , spanking) and disruptive disorders in children is found in studies of European American families, research on African American families has found a negative association or none at all. Moreover, a review of the literature indicates that the positive association between spanking and child behavior problems is bidirectional for White families, whereas it is the product of reverse causation (i. . , negative child behaviors result in spanking) in Black families. The implications of these sociocultural differences for parent training programs and the family study of disruptive behaviors are discussed. This study establishes that the positive correlation between the use of physical discipline and disruptive disorders in children found in research on European American families does not appear to be generalizable to African American families. Black parents’ use of spanking is more a consequence than a cause of problem behaviors in children. Moreover, parents in the African American community, especially in low-income urban areas, may use authoritarian methods in attempts to protect their children from noxious social environments. Awareness of sociocultural differences in the relationship between parenting practices and developmental outcomes would put Black parents’ behavior in proper perspective, as well as encourage interventions and policies that address community-level problems to ensure healthy child development in high-risk environments. On the one hand, these controlling methods of parenting may be effective in reducing undesirable or high-risk behaviors of Black children and adolescents. On the other hand, they may place African American children at risk for other problems, such as academic failure and child abuse. Thus an appreciation of sociocultural differences in parenting styles and related outcomes should not lead to unconditional acceptance of punitive behaviors because of their cultural significance. Alternative strategies that are culturally compatible, such as response cost, may be useful if the motivation is child oriented and not parent oriented. Sensitivity to differences in parenting styles across cultures simply means that the functional significance of spanking should be explored, and the ecological context in which families live should be taken into consideration in theory, research, and practice devoted to understanding environmental influences on child development. Research conducted by Hart and colleagues (1998) shows that maternal and paternal parenting styles and marital interactions are linked to childhood aggressive behavior. This study included an ethnic Russian sample of 207 families of nursery-school-age children. Results corroborated and extended findings from Western samples. Maternal and paternal coercion, lack of responsiveness, and psychological control (for mothers only) were significantly correlated with children’s overt aggression with peers. Less responsiveness (for mothers and fathers) and maternal coercion positively correlated with relational aggression. Some of these associations differed for boys versus girls. Marital conflict was also linked to more overt and relational aggression for boys. When entered into the same statistical model, more marital conflict (for boys only), more maternal coercion, and less paternal responsiveness were found to be the most important contributors to overt and relational aggression in younger Russian children. Similar to Western findings, the results of this research supports the idea that the absence of positive parenting is as important in the development of childhood behavior problems directed toward peers as is the presence of negative parenting. In terms of the development of aggression, lack of Russian paternal responsiveness and more maternal coercion remained significant contributors to overt and relational aggression, regardless of which other parenting style or marital hostility variables that they were pitted against in the regressions. Although this supports prior work concerning relationships between maternal coercion and aggression, it highlights the importance of paternal responsiveness that involves positive, playful, and engaging interactions in children’s social development. It is interesting that only maternal (and not paternal) psychological control was found to significantly correlate with Russian preschoolers’ overt aggression. However, when pitted against the effects of other predictors in the regression model, its contribution was reduced to a marginal trend. Although these findings appear to suggest that psychological control may not be as powerfully related to aggressive outcomes in young Russian children, firm conclusions should be reserved for future researchers using a variety of methodological approaches. A study conducted by Chen and colleagues (2000) included a sample of children, initially 12 years old, in the People’s Republic of China who participated in a 2-year longitudinal study. Data on parental warmth, control, and indulgence were collected from children’s self-reports. Information concerning social, academic, and psychological adjustment was obtained from multiple sources. The results indicated that parenting styles might be a function of child gender and change with age. Regression analyses revealed that parenting styles of fathers and mothers predicted different outcomes. Whereas maternal warmth had significant contributions to the prediction of emotional adjustment, paternal warmth significantly predicted later social and school achievement. It was also found that paternal, but not maternal, indulgence significantly predicted children’s adjustment difficulties. The contributions of the parenting variables might be moderated by the child’s initial conditions. Since the implementation of the one-child-per-family policy, maintaining the balance between expressing love and affection and imposing requirements and limits on the child has been a significant challenge to Chinese parents. Many parents in China are concerned about whether their child is indulged or spoiled because they may give too much attention and privilege to the child. Does parental indulgence predict children’s problems? An examination of this issue would not only help us understand the meaning and significance of the parenting dimension, but would also have practical implications for childrearing in China. The results of this study indicated that paternal indulgence had significant and negative contributions to the prediction of later leadership, social competence, and academic achievement. Furthermore, paternal indulgence significantly and positively predicted later aggressive-disruptive behaviors. Thus, children who had indulgent fathers tended to be less competent and more maladjusted in both social and academic areas than other children. Maternal indulgence, in general, was not significantly associated with children’s adjustment outcomes. Two possible explanations may be offered. First, because parental indulgence is likely to result in a lack of social assertiveness and poor skills in self-control and self-regulation, which are important for social interactions and school performance, the effect of indulgence may be more salient on social and school adjustment than on psychological well-being. Fathers may focus mainly on children’s social functioning and school achievement, whereas mothers may be more sensitive to the children’s emotional adjustment. The review of literature on the different parenting styles and child development in different cultures support the current theory which states there is no particular parenting that is best over all others. There are, however, parenting styles that are more suitable to different cultures. Furthermore, it is becoming more clear and evident that not only culture determines which parenting style is best for children. Many other factors, such as social and economic circumstances play a significant role in this matter as well. References Chen X. , Li D. , Liu M. (2000). Parental warmth, control and indulgence and their relations to adjustment in Chinese children: a longitudinal study. Journal of Family Psychology 14(3) pp. 401-419 Hart C. , McNeilly-Choque M. K. , Nelson D. A. , Olsen S. F. , Robinson C. C. (1998). Overt and relational aggression in Russian nursery-school-age children: parental style and marital linkages. Developmental Psychology 34(4) pp. 687-697 Whaley A. L. (2000). Sociocultural differences in the developmental consequences of the use of physical discipline during childhood for African-Americans. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology 6(1) pp. 5-12 How to cite Parenting Styles and Culture, Papers

Sunday, April 26, 2020

Internet Addiction Essays (1377 words) - Behavioral Addiction

Internet Addiction A Growing Epidemic in America: Internet Addiction The Internet has become one of the most universal methods for communication with over 100 million users worldwide. From e-mail to the possibly billions of web pages, there is an infinite amount of information flowing. And another enticing aspect of the Internet, is the opportunity to interact with other people. Chat Rooms and MUD (Multi-User Dimensional) games offer the person the ability to talk and mingle with others online. But with this newfound freedom, also comes the possibility of abuse and addiction. Internet addiction, also known as Pathological Internet use, has emerged as a very destructive force in todays society. David Greenfield believes an estimated 6 percent of the web users 100 million people are thought to be online addicts, and that number is growing everyday. But what causes Internet Addiction? There are many different causes, but one of the most essential, is thought to be a personality disorder. Carol Potera, an author in Psychology Today says, The lone, bored, depress, introverted, lacking self-esteem, or have a history of addictions are most vulnerable. This group of people seems to be the most susceptible to all mental disorders, psychologically or physical. These people need to fill the void that has been created by not having any real life relationships, so they turn to the Internet, just as if someone would turn to drugs. Greenfield thinks people feel closer, quicker to the people they communicated with online than in real life; time passes freely, and people like the anonymity. (Greenfield) A study conducted by the Stanford Institute for the Quantitative Study of Society and InterSurvey (headed by Norman H Nie and Lutz Erbing) had some interesting findings. Twenty-five percent of the surveyed participants (4,113 in 2,689 households) say that web time has reduced their time spent with friends and family and participating in events outside the home. They also found that nearly 60% of the surveyed cut back on television viewing also, in which Erbing added that the Internet could be the ultimate isolating technology that further reduces our participation in communities, even more than TV did before. (Erbing) This is a relatively new disorder, and there hasnt been much studying or research of it. So how does one know if he or she is a pathological Internet user? There are a few symptoms that are good indicators of a problem, says Kimberly S. Young of Neglecting family activities, social events, work, school in order to spend more time on the Internet is probably the biggest sign of Internet addiction. (Young) But also suffering withdrawal symptoms, not being able to limit time online, constantly thinking about the next online session, and preferring to talk to cyber-friends rather than face-to-face conversations are also signs. There are about 3 distinct situations in which internet addiction can take form although they all are based on the need of personal contact, and ability to change personal status to gain peer recognition Online games, chat rooms, and cyber-sexual addiction. Greenfield tries to identify these separate cases. One way a person becomes addicted to the net is through online games. It is a fantasy world where the player takes on the name of a character and they battle other on-line players accumulating points and status from other players. While online, the player feels in control of their destiny, yet off-line they feel less competent and maybe awkward when not playing. (Greenfield) I have been part of this MUD gaming system, and I must say that it was exciting. Although I wasnt that really interested in it after a few times of play, because the others were a lot better than I was, and I would lose almost every match almost indefinitely. I didnt feel a real need to return to the site to c ontinue the game mostly due to the fact that I wasnt successful in it. But if I would have better at it, and had fun, it could have been a different story. A more taboo type of addiction presented by the Internet is the cyber-sexual addiction. The Internet provides pornographic images to anyone, and there is almost no sort of safeguard to young children. This sort of freedom makes it