Friday, November 29, 2019
Critical review of work on Amer. society as individually, socially, historically institutionally racist. Andrew Hacker, in Two Nations: Black and White, Separate, Hostile, Unequal, paints a picture of a society dominated by the injustices of racism. The book is a far from hopeful portrait of the current racial situation in the United States. It is a work buttressed not only by great insight, but by pertinent and startling statistics revealing the direct and destructive effects of racism in the areas of household income, family arrangements, child-support payments, criminal victimization, educational attainment, and fertility expectations (233). In every instance, blacks are shown by Hacker to suffer greatly as a result of that racism. Neither does the book offer much optimism with respect to the future of relationships between the races nor with respect to the maltreatment of blacks by overt and covert means in the
Monday, November 25, 2019
Top 100 Allied Health Jobs That Are Hiring Today If youÃ¢â¬â¢re interested in a career in medical and health services, you have your eye on the right prize. Allied health positions can vary from patient work, to management positions, to technologist jobs, and come with a solid salary. While some require a bit of schooling, most donÃ¢â¬â¢t need a huge amount of education to break into, and offer good growth opportunities.Here is a varied list of jobs that fall under the allied health umbrella.Allied Health Job TitlesAssistant Director of NursingBehavior AnalystCardiac NurseCath Lab NurseCertified Medical Assistant (CMA)Certified Nursing Assistant (CNA)Certified Ophthalmic TechnicianCertified Registered Nurse (RN)- MidwifeCharge NurseClinical AssistantClinical Documentation SpecialistClinical EducatorClinical PsychologistClinical Services DirectorClinical Services ManagerClinical SupervisorCritical Care NurseCT TechnologistDental AssistantDental HygienistDentistDietary AideDietitianEmergency Medical Technician (EMT)- ParamedicEme rgency Room NurseEnvironmental Health SpecialistEnvironmental Services ManagerER TechnicianFamily PhysicianHealth Information TechnicianHealth Service CoordinatorHealthcare Information Services ManagerHealthcare Project ManagerHome Care AdministratorHome Care NurseHome Health Aide (HHA)Home Health Care NurseHospital Admissions CoordinatorHospital TransporterLaboratory CourierLicensed Practical Nurse (LPN)Licensed Vocational Nurse (LVN)MDS CoordinatorMedical AssistantMedical Case ManagerMedical CoderMedical DirectorMedical Laboratory Technician (MLT)Medical Records AnalystMedical Technologist (MT)Medical TranscriptionistMedication TechnicianMental Health TechnicianMonitor TechnicianMRI TechnicianNurse ManagerNurse Practitioner (NP)Nurse SupervisorNursing AideNursing AssistantNursing Care CoordinatorNursing DirectorNutritionistOccupational Health ManagerOccupational Therapist (OT)Occupational Therapist AssistantOffice NurseOncology NurseOperating Room NurseOpticianOptometric Technicia nOral Surgeon AssistantOrthodontic AssistantPACU NursePathology AssistantPatient Care Technician (PCT)PediatricianPhlebotomistPhysical Therapist (PT)Physical Therapist AidePhysical Therapist Assistant (PTA)PhysicianPhysician AssistantPractical Registered Nurse (PRN)Psychiatric NursePsychiatric TechnicianPsychiatristRadiologic TechnicianRadiologic TechnologistRegistered Dental Assistant (RDA)Registered Nurse (RN)Respiratory TherapistSafety RepresentativeSchool NurseSchool PsychologistSpeech Language Pathologist (SLP)Staff NurseSurgical TechnicianUltrasound TechnicianAccording to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, employment of allied healthÃ jobs is projected to grow 19% throughÃ 2024, adding about 2.3 million new jobs.The median annual wage for healthcare practitioners and technical occupations (such as registered nurses, physicians and surgeons, and dental hygienists) is around $63,420, while healthcare support occupations (such as home health aides, occupational therapy assistant s, and medical transcriptionists) have a median annual wage of $27,910.
Friday, November 22, 2019
Fashion Assignment - Armani - Essay Example The essay "Fashion Assignment - Armani" concerns Giorgio Armani's fashion. To best understand the brand design architecture of Giorgio Armani, we fist need to create an understanding of the environment in which it operates. Armani has diversified into many brand facets, adding more levels to its brands pyramid, with the original Giorgio Armani still at the apex. This shows the pride which it wishes to create for its parent brand, while forwarding its legacy down to the following brands. The setting up of standards is very crucial for Armani, as whenever, a new brand is launched, it is overseen to be aligned with the set standards of the parent brand itself. Giorgio Armani (at the top of the grid) is a very successful and elite corporate brand with a sole proprietorship; being the first in line showcasing the exquisite collection of couture gowns and suits to match the new fashion trends, targeting the segment of the elite class groups between the age of 35 Ã¢â¬â 50 with a high ran ge of prices and superior quality. While targeting the elite class, the line of Armani brands has made sure to target the upper middle class as well. The Armani Collizioni, caters to the segment of customers who love Armani as a brand but cannot afford the originally luxurious Armani and so Collizioni incorporates lower prices than that of its parent brand with a little simpler designs in order to sell to this segment of population. Similarly, Armani exchange caters to a very different and casual market grouping with realistic prices., unlike their couture lines. It is for the general public to take pride in wearing Armani and to create an association with the parent brand. Armani exchange is the most affordable and accessible brand in the Armani chain of stores. To be noted here, is ArmaniÃ¢â¬â¢s way of targeting each and every segment in the market while also not decreasing the perceived value and luxurious image of the brand. Each and every segment is targeted with a new name a long with the originally created legacy of its parent Brand (Magnoni & Roux, 2011). Going totally diverse from its initial offerings, Armani features a furniture line named as Armani Casa which entails the alluring Armani pride while offering high-end home decor; magnificently designed furniture, lamps, linens and fine dining essentials. In contrast to its other brands, Casa has only 40 stores worldwide which shows their lack of focus towards their range of furnishings. However, to make its furniture line more exclusive, all Armani hotels and CafeÃ¢â¬â¢s are furnished with its own brand Casa (Giorgioarmani.com, 2012). Armani emphasizes greatly on its logo and towards creating its brand image, this is exceptionally evident through its efforts of framing the brand luxury and stressing on the brand name in all its sub brands. For clothing Armani has made sure to cover all market segments with naming its stores differently, however, the parent brand still has been associated with the new store names (Tungate, 2008). Brand Architecture The brand architecture of Armani communicates its marketing philosophy. The way Armani caters to all market segments is by highlighting the uniqueness of the brand itself and through appealing to different population segments based on their personalities (Magnoni &
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
Analysis and summary report of findings - Essay Example of helping residents in NG7 reduce their household costs- such as heating bills with the aim or converting the fuel and food expenditure to other household basic necessities. The NEST projectÃ¢â¬â¢s approach entails the promotion of awareness local fuel and food through open talks and educational outreach which can act as a catalyst in development and financial support food and fuel crisis. Conservation and improvisation are some of the methods that can be used to reduce domestic expenditure. The NEST Project focuses its concerns on domestic income and expenditure with the analysis of the NG7 community. One of the major issues is the rising of electricity and water bills in relation to their impacts on domestic expenditure and conservation practices. a research survey for local NG7 community residents indicates that the rising gas , electricity and water bills creates a negative impact on the domestic expenditure as less money is set aside to spend on basic necessities such as food, clothing and security (Henry, 2010). In this case, a large number of residents strongly agree with the analogy that rising gas, electricity and water bills reduces the budget expenditure of the basic necessities of a household. NEST project research survey for local residents in NG7 portrays that rising gas, electricity and water bills directly affect the health and wellbeing of many families. A majority of the residence in NG7 area agree with this notion according to NEST project research survey for local residents in NG7. Family health and wellbeing largely depends on the family income and expenditure. In cases of lack of balance between the income and the expenditure rate, families tend to suffer from health and wellbeing issues as many people ignore social and health responsibilities2. Therefore, inadequate fund leads to poor health and wellbeing in most families in NG7 area. One of the common ways used to cut down the expenditure rate in a household is the use of DIY tools. The
Monday, November 18, 2019
World of Work Silver - Organisational Awareness - Coursework Example Jaguar is exported to more than 60 countries around the world. In mid-2008 IndiaÃ¢â¬â¢s Tata Motors acquired JLR for Ã £1.15 billion in what is seen as a move to expand its production line and cut down on costs (Grant, 2010). JLR conducts its sales to customers mainly through franchised distributors and importers. However, since 2008 activities, the demand for Land Rover cars and sales immediately declined by almost one-quarter. In 2009, for instance, 144,133 car sales were registered. Jaguar also recorded a slump in sales by almost 20 per cent to about 52,500 in 2010 (Grant, 2010). Regardless, Jaguar is an effective innovation-driven organization in its internal processes, judging by the unique car designs created through innovation and seamless R&D processes. In order to improve the quality of its products, JLR has reduced its product lines to two instead of the initial six (Raynal, 2012). This implies that JLR is keen on differentiation of a lean product line, which is achievable through technological and product line modernisation. The company spends heavily on R&D so as to come up with products which not only meet but exceed current and future customer expectations. But compared to other market rivals, JLR carefully balances its innovation with the primary risk in the current business environment Ã¢â¬â cost overruns in the unpredictable market forces. Nonetheless, JaguarÃ¢â¬â¢s supply chain management is still poor, judging by the low presence of the products in the developing economies compared to its market rivals such as Mercedes Benz or General Mo tors (Harris, 2013). Owing to the fitness of the Land Rover brand for different purposes, the brand is apparently performing better than the Jaguar brand (Gomes et al, 2007). After the recent acquisition, the company has shifted major head office decisions to India in an attempt to strengthen its market presence across the two products. In India, the company seeks to
Saturday, November 16, 2019
An Analysis Of Cultural Heritage Tourism Tourism Essay Heritage is property of the world. It has important evidences of past incidents and changes and it is the necessity to conserve it without political involvement and racial discrimination (UNESCO, 2004). So far Graham et al. (2000, p40) suggested Heritage is tremendously concerned in the construction and legitimating of collective constructs of uniqueness, such as group, gender, religion, civilization and nationalism. When we talk about the relation of heritage into tourism industry, at first, holy cities such as Rome are acknowledged as a highly multifunctional and even multi heritage place, as a result, the heritage attractions positively become the feature of Italy for tourist. To manifest the implication of heritage is consequently the key point of managing a heritage sites. As cultural heritage tourism is mostly depending on the history, the event in the past has abundant evidence that how the past travels had been changing the entire pages of each century and affected our past life. Much of it is also passed on form age to age occasionally in the form in which it actually happen but more often as myth or fable. In whichever form it is of prime importance to a tourism professional, particularly in the circumstances such as the one obtaining in India with wealthy cultural heritage having continuity form the ancient (IGNOU, 2002). The process of finding will continue to the future because no one predict that how many real stories have buried in the earth or still has not being found. But somehow scholars has been able to find the real incident of past with the help of evidences of literature which still present all over the world as well as the role of science and researchers. An archaeology department of each country is encouraging the researchers to fin d out about our past. These particular reasons also encouraged to the selection of the dissertation topic, so at first this will focus on past history and development of Ajanta and Ellora caves and then it will look at the past record of tourist information and the with the help of available secondary data from Books, Journal articles, news papers past surveys and the information available from the internet, respective governments and non government agencies such as UNESCO, ICOMOS, IUCN, GHF, etc. Introduction: Cultural heritage conservation is always a centre of discussion in the form of developing economy of various nations. Cultural heritage tourism product is becoming a prime source for develop and developing countries. Countries like India where every tourist gets glimpses of diverse culture in his/her entire journey. India is primarily a cultural destination in international tourism in these are the features of India marketed as tourism product in international as well as domestic circuit. Domestic tourism competition already has begun in India from past decades every states government has been developing their strategies with the help of international organization to improve the tourism. In result due to sudden changes the competition can be seen among service providers as from hawkers to a large scale stakeholders. In scenario market everyones mind has been diverting toward the heritage sites in India, thus its creating trafficking of tourists as well as service providers. So it is affecting the quality of services and facilities. So it shows a different picture of hospitality and tourism industry in India. Visitors/ tourists these are the main driver of tourism industries. Firstly, the different demands and requirement of individual is affecting on tourism industry in India such as tailor made tours and the class of tourist. Also the issues and understanding of heritage tourism by people it may be visitors/tourists or local communities are different. There are two types of tourists are who has interested to visit a cultural sites around the world and the second one who Most of the peoples travel interest is to watch heritage sites around the world and some leisure activity thus it boosting the economy of respective destination. The most important part of tourism is a cultural as well as natural heritage property. So it always remains prime attraction to most of the people to come and enjoy their holidays. This dissertation will focus on the every aspects of cultural heritage tourism industry such as supply, demand, conservation management, interpretation, authenticity and politics of cultural heritage site. The primary data can receive with the help of some questionnaire to understand the real nature and find out what can do more to achieve the overall development at Ajanta and Ellora Caves at Aurangabad. To understand the World cultural heritage site here the UNESCO considers that as a monuments, architectural works, works of monumental sculpture and painting, elements or structures of an archaeological nature, inscriptions, cave dwellings and combinations of features, which are of outstanding universal value from the point of view of history, art or science; groups of buildings: groups of separate or connected buildings which, because of their architecture, their homogeneity or their place in the landscape, are of exceptional universal importance from the point of view of history, art or science; sites: works of man or the combined works of nature and man, and areas including archaeological sites which are of excellent universal value from the historical, aesthetic, ethnological or anthropological point of view. In contrast it is suggested that World Heritage Sites should not only be exemplary situations for the pursuit of research but also be closely identified with the creation and maintenance of different kinds of knowledge (Darvill, T., 2007). People always willing to learn new things or exchange the knowledge between each other, it is nothing but to become aware about our surroundings and changing of trends in scenario market. Here, In the Krakow Charter (2000), a monument is defined as a clearly determined entity, the bearer of values, which represent a support to memory. In it, memory recognises the aspects that are relevant to human performance and feelings, associated with the historic time-line (Vecco, M 2010). Economic In the Times of India there was an article about heritage tourism and in that the Atul Sethi has mentioned that Heritage can become a serious economic driver for India, if the country is able to get its act together. If we take an example as future 2025, so the picture of the heritage site will give different view as no beggars or touts in particular area like Maluti temple, a world heritage site in Jharkhand India. So tourist can enjoy the holistic experience of the temples and can savour the living legacy of the region. The heritage tourism in India is attracting hordes of international and domestic tourist and top of the line contributors to the countrys foreign exchange and GDP. The global heritage fund organizations 2010 report says that developing countries like India can tap a $ 100 billion a year opportunity by 2025, if they make sincere attempt to preserve and responsibly develop their heritage sites. Literature Review: Introduction: This chapter will investigate the perception of cultural heritage tourism and visitor management as well as development of tourism at site by reviewing several concerned literatures. The review will start with the overview of cultural heritage tourism including the concept of Culture, heritage, cultural heritage tourism and cave architecture from different World Heritage Sites to understand the their current scenario of cultural heritage tourism management. The review will be followed by the discussion on visitor impacts, their experience and management. Also it will focus on the intermediaries of cultural heritage tourism. Cultural heritage tourism: Cultural Tourism is the subset of tourism that is defined as travel directed toward experiencing the traditional and contemporary culture, arts, and special character of a place. This includes the performing, visual and literary arts, language, museums, heritage, crafts, architecture, design, film and broadcasting. The primary benefit of cultural tourism is economic impact. There are plenty of statistics that talk about the fact that travellers who participate in cultural activities spend more money and stay longer than leisure travellers. A good cultural tourism plan shapes and defines a communitys image, both to itself and to the outside world Cultural tourism and cultural heritage management work as equivalent activities in most places with really little conversation between the two (Mckercher and Du Cros, 2002). As it shows common interest between the cultural and cultural heritage is the management, conservation, and preservation of the cultural and heritage properties. So the results of this many lost opportunities to provide value to visitor experiences even though managing rare and weak resources in a social context, environmentally and ethically responsible and sustainable manner. Sometimes this loss results in some (and scholars stress some) unprincipled tourism operator exploring local culture and heritage assets for their own personal gain (Mckercher and Du Cros, 2002). Hall and Zeppel (1990a:87 in Timothy and Boyd, 2003) stated that relation between cultural and heritage tourism is: Cultural heritage is experiential tourism based on being involved in and stimulated by the performing arts and festivals. Heritage tourism, whether in the form of visiting preferred landscapes, historic sites, buildings or monuments is also experiential tourism in the sense of seeking an encounter with nature or feeling part of the history of a place. Most researchers believe that heritage is linked to the past which symbolizes some sort of gift to be passed down to current as well as future generations, both in terms of cultural traditions and physical objects (Hardy, 1988 cited in Timothy and Boyd 2003). But in contrast many authors have pointed out that what elements of past a society need to maintain (Fladmark 1998; Graham et al., 2000; Hall and McArthur 1998 in Timothy and Boyd 2003). As there are many incidents all cannot link to the cultural aspects. This makes selective sort of heritage it assumes some aspect of value, that which is of personal value is labelled as personal or family heritage, whereas those values dictated by nations or communities become our heritage (Hall and McArthur 1998 cited in Timothy and Boyd 2003). Hall and Zappel (1990) observed differently that the connections between cultural and heritage tourism, stating that Cultural tourism is experiential tourism based on being involved in and stimulated by the performing arts, visual arts and festivals. Heritage tourism whether in the form of visiting preferred landscapes, historic sites, building or monuments, is also experiential tourism in the sense of seeking an encounter with nature or feeling part of the history of a place. However the most internationally accepted definition of heritage was defined by UNESCO that Heritage is our legacy from the past, what we live with today, and what we pass on to the future generations (UNESCO 2008a, p.5). Furthermore Timothy and Boyd (2003) stated that heritage can be divided into tangible immovable resources (e.g. national park, sanctuaries, monuments, buildings), tangible movable resources (e.g. objects in museums) and intangible resources including values, customs, ceremonies, lifestyles and experiences such as cultural events, currently UNESCO focusing on folk dances of south India as a cultural heritage( ). It defines that heritage tourism as an immersion in the natural history human heritage, arts, philosophy and institutions of another region or country (Timothy and Boyd 2003). The importance of Heritage The importance of heritage and reasons for preserving heritage can be described into four aspects which are social, economical, scientific and political (Hall and McArthur 1993a). In social significance, heritage refers to personal and collective identity people and society have which can lead to create a sense of belonging. The sense of belonging and social conscience is a driver to consider preservation in the first place. In terms of economic importance, heritage is preserved because of its value for tourism and recreation. As being a large scale business, heritage tourism can generate incomes for the sites either from visitor spending or sponsorship from various stakeholders (Hall and McArthur 1993a). Further mainly Heritage have scientific and educational importance since heritage attractions especially natural heritage sites such as national parks may have rare habitat and endangered species which will be useful for scientific researches as well as the monuments and wonders of the worlds creates more opportunities to the scientist and researchers to find out the exact meaning of the past it may be by digging by the archaeological department of each country or the scientific analysis of wall paintings at various world heritage sites (Hall and McArthur 1993a). In terms of political importance, Hall and McArthur (1993a, p. 9) state that the importance and demonstration of heritage may serve political ends as the conservation and interpretation of certain heritage attractions may serve to underline a particular version of history or to promote existing political values. Current tourist demand: According to (Pavliv, 2009) up gradation in the standard of living is become a main cause of rises in fluctuation of tourists spending for example the income generating from the modern tourism commodities. Modern tourists behaviour is the main factor in current tourism industry. As currently many of travel operations that could be from demand side or supply side are in boom because ease of accessing Information through internet. So the importance of information technology in the current industry is the main factor while considering the supply and demand of tourism industry. Also it can be assumed that the personal needs of the modern tourism have more influence compare to old masses of tourism. The current tourism mostly depended on economic mass and production to consume mass, standardized and rigidly packaged holidays. The new tourists are dictating the pace and direction of industry changes (Poon, 1993 in Pavlic, 2009). New tourists behaviour is the most important factor in the modern tourism development. Consequently, here the intention of the research is to find out the main factors and consequences of tourism demand changes. The researcher wants to find out if there is the universal type of tourist for the universal tourism supply or there are different types that require different marketing approach for example the e-tourism method to attract the tourists. Also the goals of the paper are to research the main causes of changes in modern tourism. The stated phenomenon has exerted a great influence onto the behavioural changes, as well as on the change in structure of the existing needs of tourist demand compare with the previous period. While the old mass tourism, apparently identical tourists were forced by the economic and mass production to consume mass, standardized and rigidly packaged holidays of every group of people and individual, new tourist consider the changes in this industry are and it affecting on their individual decision (Poon, 1993 cited in Pavlic, 2009). For ex: tour packages. Vellas Becherel (1997 in Pavlic, 2009) the modern tourist can be classified in various factors and in that three main factors which particularly in demand of travel of tourist firstly, demographic and communal changes. These factors mainly control by traditional and existing outbound market respectively these are two main markets in this industry so as far as concern it has enormous influence on the individual tourist as well as on international tourism. Secondly, leisure time and duration of holidays is greater than before as. Segmentation of holidays and market segmentation. Chapter 3 A case study of Ajanta and Ellora caves The consideration of architectural heritage had been a matter of national concern only at most the laws regarding protection of historic building in Europe date back to that period of their national borders. There are numerous cultural groups live in each country, but their scope never went beyond the boundaries. The cultural internationalism was a result of the First World War, with the formation of the confederation of Nations, and most of all of the Second World War, with the formation of the United Nations Organization and the establishment of the UNECO (ICOMOS, 2010). The chapter provides a literature review of cultural heritage tourism in India, Particularly at Ajanta and Ellora Caves World Heritage sites inscribed in 1983 by UNESCO at Aurangabad, India. These caves are great example of cave architecture from the 2nd to 6th century. It is mainly demonstrate the Buddhist, Jain and Hindu religion cultures. So, these studies will focuses on the religious diversity of cultures in India as well as it involve the importance of heritage visitors management at those sites. And then it will compare with other world heritage sites. As what can do more to maintain/sustain the balance between demand and supply side of heritage tourism industry in India. Increasing tourists and the conservation of heritage sites these are the main issues now days. So, as subsidizing product of tourism industry what are the main significance and characteristics of cultural heritage tourism and its importance around the world and in India particularly at Ajanta and Ellora caves . According to the UNESCO, the Ajanta Caves are the masterwork of the Archaeological rock cut caves. The first Buddhist cave monuments at Ajanta date from the 2nd and 1st centuries B.C. During the Gupta dynasty period (5th and 6th centuries A.D.), highly abundantly decorated caves were added to the original group. The paintings and sculptures of Ajanta, considered as a stunning success of Buddhist religious art, have had a considerable artistic influence. As it mentioned above the Ajanta caves depict the role of the Buddhist community, intellectual and religious halls, schools for self development based on the teaching of Vipassana. In theÃ BuddhistÃ tradition which means insightÃ into the nature of reality. Vipassana is one of worlds most ancient techniques of meditation; it is a practice of self-transformation through self-observation andÃ introspection. In English, vipassanaÃ is often referred to simply as insight meditation. The caves also was a reception centres in the India of the Gupta and their immediate successors. The caves are located 100Ã km north-east of Ellora, 104Ã km from Aurangabad, Maharashtra India and 52Ã km from Jalgaon Railway Station. They are cut into the volcanic lava of the Deccan in the forest ravines of the Sahyadri Hills and are set in beautiful sylvan surroundings. The most important part is these magnificent caves containing carvings that depict the life of Buddha, and their carvings and sculptures are considered to be the beginning of classical Indian art. And this is main reason why tourist and researchers attract to those sites. The description of the caves is, the total number of caves are 30 but one is unfinished caves so the 29 caves were excavated beginning around 200 BC, but they were abandoned in AD 650 in favour of Ellora. In that five of the caves were temples and 24 were monasteries, thought to have been occupied by some 200 monks and artisans. After 7th century to 18th century there was no any supportive record has found, it may be because of increased forest surrounding of the site and that it was forgotten until their rediscovery by a British tiger-hunting party in 1819. The Ajanta site consists of 29 caves cut into the side of a cliff which rises above a wander in the Waghora River. Today the caves are reached by a road which runs along a terrace mid-way up the cliff; however each cave was once linked by a stairway to the edge of the water. This is a Buddhist community, comprises five sanctuaries or Chaitya-grihasÃ (caves number 9, 10, 19, 26 and 29) and monastic complexÃ sangharamasÃ or viharas. A first group of caves was formed in the 2nd century BC: the Chaitya-grihas open into the rock wall by doorways surmounted by a horse-shoe shaped bay. The ground plan is a basilical one: piers separate the principal nave from the side walkway which joins in the apsis to permit the ritual circumambulation behind the (commemorative monument). This rupestral architecture scrupulously reproduces the forms and elements visible in wooden constructions. A second group of caves was created at a later date, the 5th and 6th centuries AD, during the Gupta and post-Gupta periods. These caves were excavated during the supremacy of the Vakatakas and Guptas. According to inscriptions, Varahadeva, the minister of the Vakataka king, Harishena (c. AD 475-500), dedicated Cave 16 to the Buddhist sangha while Cave 17 was the gift of the prince, a feudatory. An inscription records that the Buddha image in Cave 4 was the gift of some Abhayanandi who hailed from Mathura. The earlier architectural formulas were re-employed but treated in an infinitely richer and more ample manner. The decoration attained, at this time, an unequalled splendour: the statuary is numerous (it was already permissible to represent Buddha as a human; these representations are found both on the facades and in the interior). Finally, the wall painting, profuse and sensitive, constitutes, no doubt, the most striking artistic achievement of Ajanta. Under the impulse of the Gupta dynasty, Indian art in effect reached its apogee. The Ajanta Caves are generally decorated with painted or sculpted figures of supple form and classic balance with which the name of the dynasty has remained synonymous. The refined lightness of the decoration, the balance of the compositions, the marvellous beauty of the feminine figures place the paintings of Ajanta among the major achievements of the Gupta and post-Gupta style and confer on them the ranking of a masterpiece of universal pictorial art. Here needs to understand the history of India as how the past events has changed its culture first major civilisation Indus River valley was found early five thousand years back. The twin cities of Mohenjodaro and Harappa World heritage site UNESCO now in Pakistan were ruled by priests and held the fundamentals of Hinduism. These civilisations are known to possess a sophisticated way of life, a highly developed sense of aesthetics, an astounding knowledge of town planning and an unreadable script language. The Indus culture at one point of time extended nearly a million square kilometres across the Indus river valley. It existed at the same time as the ancient civilizations of Egypt and Sumer but far outlasted them. Surviving for nearly a thousand years the Indus valley civilisation fell to tectonic upheavals in about 1700 BC, which caused a series of floods.Ã The Aryans came around 1500 BC, and that was the reason to the collapsing Indus Valley culture. At the dawn of Vedic ages the Aryans came in from the North and spread through large parts of India bringing with them their culture and religious beliefs. Pleased In 567 B.C. Siddhartha Gautama was born. After asceticism andÃ meditation, Siddhartha Gautama discovered the BuddhistÃ Middle Way-a path of moderation away from the extremes of self-indulgence andÃ self-mortification. Siddhartha Gautama attained enlightenment sitting under aÃ PipalÃ tree, now known as theÃ Bodhi treeÃ inÃ Bodh Gaya, (A name of place) India Gautama, from then on, was known asÃ The Perfectly Self-Awakened One,Ã theÃ Samyaksambuddha. There are lots of paintings and sculptures Vipassana. During this time lived Mahavira, who founded the Jain Religion. The Indian subcontinent is full of caves and monuments devoted to these religions and are worth a visit.Ã After two hundred years, in the 4th century B.C., Emperor Ashoka, one of the greatest King of Indian histories, led the Mauryan Empire to take over almost all of what is now modern India. This great leader embraced Buddhism and built the group of monuments at Sanchi (a UNESCO world heritage site). The Ashoka pillar (four lions are seated back to back on single cut rock pillar) at Sarnath has been adopted by India as its national emblem and theÃ Dharma ChakraÃ on the Ashoka Pillar adorns the National Flag. They were followed by the Guptas in the north, while in the south part of India quite a few different Hindu empires, the Cholas, the Pandyas and the Cheras spread and grew, did business with Europe and other parts of Asia till the end of the 1100s. Christianity came in India at about the same time from Europe. Legend has it that St. Thomas the Apostle arrived in India in 52 A.D. Even earlier than that people of the Jewish religion arrived on Indias shores. In about the 7th century A.D. a group of Zoroastrians, or Parsees, landed in Gujarat and became a part of the large mix of religions in India today, each of which adds its important and distinctive flavour. In the 15th century Guru Nanak laid the foundation of the Sikh religion in Punjab. In 1192, Mohammed of Ghori, a ruler from Afghanistan, came into India and captured several places in the north including Delhi. When he went home he left one of his generals in charge who became the first Sultan of Delhi. During this time Islam, was introduced into a major part of Northern India. It can be mentioned that even before that, just after the period of the prophet, Islam was brought to the western coast of India by Arab traders and flourished in what is now Kerala. The Dehli Sultanate gradually took control of more and more of North India over the next 200 years, till Timur, who was called Timur the Lame or Tamberlane came from Turkey in 1398 to attack India. He and his army stole all the valuables that they could carry and left again, Soon the Mughals, who were from Iran, came in and took control of the north. In the meantime south, in 1336, the Hindu Vijayanagar empire was set up and became very strong. The Europeans Portuguese, French, Dutch, Danish and British started arriving in the early 1600s. The above people held territories in India and made a good friends as well as enemies among Indias rulers as they got more and more involved, with the Indian politics, however the British who eventually controlled most of India and finally made it one of their colonies. Two hundred years later, in the 4th century B.C., Emperor Ashoka, one of the greatest King of Indian histories, led the Mauryan Empire to take over almost all of what is now modern India. This great leader embraced Buddhism and built the group of monuments at Sanchi (a UNESCO world heritage site). The Ashoka pillar at Sarnath has been adopted by India as its national emblem and theÃ Dharma ChakraÃ on the Ashoka Pillar adorns the National Flag. They were followed by the Guptas in the north, while in the south part of India several different Hindu empires, the Cholas, the Pandyas and the Cheras spread and grew, trading with Europe and other parts of Asia till the end of the 1100s. Christianity entered India at about the same time from Europe. Legend has it that St. Thomas the Apostle arrived in India in 52 A.D. Even earlier than that people of the Jewish religion arrived on Indias shores. In approximately the 7th century A.D. a group of Zoroastrians, or Parsees, landed in Gujarat and became a part of the large mix of religions in India today, each of which adds its important and distinctive flavour. In the 15th century Guru Nanak laid the foundation of the Sikh religion in Punjab. To Top In 1192, Mohammed of Ghori, a ruler from Afghanistan, came into India and captured several places in the north including Delhi. When he went home he left one of his generals in charge who became the first Sultan of Delhi. During this time Islam, was introduced into a major part of Northern India. It may be mentioned that even before that, just after the period of the prophet, Islam was brought to the western coast of India by Arab traders and flourished in what is now Kerala. The Dehli Sultanate gradually took control of more and more of North India over the next 200 years, till Timur, who was called Timur the Lame or Tamberlane came from Turkey in 1398 to attack India. He and his army stole all the valuables that they could carry and left again, and after that the Delhi Sultanate was never so strong again. Soon the Mughals, who were from Iran, came in and took control of the north. In the meantime south, in 1336, the Hindu Vijayanagar empire was set up and became very strong. The Europeans Portuguese, French, Dutch, Danish and British started arriving in the early 1600s. All of them held territories in India and made friends and enemies among Indias rulers as they got more and more involved, with the Indian politics, but it was the British who eventually controlled most of India and finally made it one of their colonies. India got its independence from Britain in 1947 after a long struggle led mostly by Mahatma Gandhi. In the process of becoming independent, India became two countries instead of one. In the years since independence India has made huge progress and coped with great problems, and has developed its industry and its agriculture, and has maintained a system of government which makes it the largest democracy in the world. India got its independence from Britain in 1947. Since independence India has made huge evolution and muddle through with great problems, and has maintained a system of government which makes it the largest democracy in the world. Every community and nation try to protect, conserve and develop heritage as an asset, particularly to make them important tourist sites by developing better infrastructure and facilities, which offer a rich cultural experience to tourists and ensure cultural and natural heritage of the destination to be preserved and conserved. To extend INTACHs mandate beyond conservation, the Heritage Tourism Division was set up in December 2005. A cogent system of sustenance of heritage sites was evolved in the activities of the Division. This would allow people to have access to and understand heritage sites in complete detail. The Heritage Tourism Divisions primary work is to synergize heritage with tourism. The Division works for development of sustainable tourism connected with heritage as an asset. A development of tourist facilities is in harmony with the local eco-system and heritage architecture, and regulates sensitivity of design in architectural style of construction of any new tourist facilities. The aim of developing tourism is to conserve and utilize buildings to sustain their maintenance. Heritage Tourism development aspects are: Community Development of tourist receiving destination Socio-economic Growth of the receiving community Preservation and Conservation of cultural and natural heritage sites Income Generation
Wednesday, November 13, 2019
Capital Punishment in America Capital punishment should be viewed as the stripping away of humanity from a person. The death penalty itself should be "executed" because of racial inequities, the concept of murder, the possibility of error, lack of deterrence, the cost, and an overwhelmed legal system. "The goal of capital punishment is revenge" (Introduction 1). Capital punishment is simply an outlet for the bloodlust of the American people (Introduction 1). The death penalty is very discriminatory when it comes to racial issues. "The death penalty is fraught with abuses and the potential for abuse" (Moral Arguments 1). Capital punishment is largely "divided along racial lines" (Moral Arguments 1). "A 1990 report released by the Federal GovernmentÃ¢â¬â¢s General Accounting Office found a Ã¢â¬Ëpattern of evidence indicating racial disparities in the charging, sentencing, and imposition of the death penalty after the Furman decisionÃ¢â¬â¢" (Moral Arguments 1). In the 1970Ã¢â¬â¢s, Professor David Baldus examined sentencing patterns in Georgia. He reviewed over two-thousand five hundred homicide cases in Georgia and controlled for two-hundred and thirty non-racial factors. His conclusion was that "a person accused of killing a white was 4.3 times more likely to be sentenced to death than a person accused of killing a black" (Moral Arguments 1). Imagine the statistics when one adds the rest of the states in our country. Capital punishment is murder. It really doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t matter how you look at it. The end result is still the same. "What is the difference between the state killing and an individual killing" (Moral Arguments 1). It adds up to be the same end result. It is "one more dead body, one more set of grieving parents, and one more cemetery slot. When we execute someone, we are sending a profound message of cynicism" about the value of human life (Moral Arguments 2). "Every time we execute someone," we are sinking to the same level as the killer (Moral Arguments 2). "The American people have blood on their hands, and it will stay there until we finally remove this barbaric practice from our nation" (Moral Arguments 2). One of the most apparent reasons the d... ... The death penalty is based upon revenge against the murderer. All it adds up to at the end of the day is another corpse to bury. Works Cited "Death." http://donlemaire.homestead.com/deathpen~main.html. "Fight the Death Penalty in USA." www.fp.dk/index-uk.htm. "Innocence and the Death Penalty." www.essential.org/dpic/innoc.html. Greenberg, Jack. "Taking Sides." Dushkin Publishing Group, Inc. 1991. "Introduction." http://pages.prodigy.com/DC/vortex.intro.html. "Moral Arguments Against the Death Penalty." http://pages.prodigy.com/DC/vortex/moral.html. "NetmonkeyÃ¢â¬â¢s Death Penalty Page." www.netmonkey.com/1998/features/death/death8.html. "Pragmatic Arguments Against the Death Penalty." http://pages.prodigy.com/DC/vortex/prag.html. United States. PresidentÃ¢â¬â¢s Commission on Law Enforcement and Administration of Justice. "The Challenge of Crime in a Free Society." New York: Avon, 1968.
Monday, November 11, 2019
1. Executive Summary Costco Wholesale Corporation founded in 1983 by Jim Sinegal in Seatle Washington with a vision & mission Ã¢â¬Å"to continually provide members with quality of goods and services at the lowest possible price control inventory.Ã¢â¬ Part of their strategy include direct buying relationship that ensures an efficient & strong SC management, high standard staffing plans, high quality products at lower prices and assessable to members who are considered more loyal. Efforts are made to develop strategic options in line with these strategies while focusing on the supply chain parameters that span from order placement to receipt of goods at the warehouse and made available to customers in the warehouse shop floor using the most cost effective processes in order to ensure they support the mission of the company. By assessing CostcoÃ¢â¬â¢s external opportunities and threats as well as the internal strengths and weaknesses (using SWOT & PorterÃ¢â¬â¢s Five Forces analysis), one can infer they are doing well within their industry. More options were generated to increase sales and awareness of the retail warehouses. The report concludes with recommendations for Costco to sustain itÃ¢â¬â¢s market edge and advance by expanding into the European & Asian markets more as their presence is still very weak in these regions as well as add other services & goods to their already existing list. 2. Introduction Costco Wholesale Corporation founded in 1983 within the retail industry is the largest warehouse club in the world based on sales volume. A major wholesale business offering three levels of membership and the largest wholesale club operator in the US with membership/warehouse locations spread across Asia, Europe, North & South America with headquarters based in Washington, US. Their main competitors operating membership warehouses include SamÃ¢â¬â¢s Club & BJÃ¢â¬â¢s wholesale club. Jim Sinegal, the founder defines the company vision as Ã¢â¬Å"giving the best to the customer at the best value possibleÃ¢â¬ . Here best value (in quality of goods & services offered) at low prices are the driving force. Costco backs up itÃ¢â¬â¢s products with a return policy within a time frame of average 90 days, a highly endearing attraction to itÃ¢â¬â¢s members. The business model focuses on low prices & volume purchase in order to achieve profit at low margin with stores offering discounts on an average of 4,000 products out of which roughly a thousand are Ã¢â¬Ëtreasure huntÃ¢â¬â¢ referring to goods that are scarcely available for purchase always. Volume purchase from few vendors yielding further reduction in price and lowers cost in marketing. With low prices, quality goods in limited selection based on forecast lead to quick turnover in inventory. The high volume purchase and efficient network distribution yield efficiency in operations for Costco. With a stipulated membership fee, Costco warehouses are designed to help small to medium size businesses reduce purchasing costs as well as serving large families with the goods packaged in bulk ranging from alcoholic beverages, electronics, fresh food/produce, household & office supplies, pharmaceuticals & tires. Also available are special memberships with services like car & home insuranc e, mortgage and real estate services, and packages for travels. 3.Purpose and Main Areas Of the Research (Concepts & Techniques) Analyzing the supply chain operations at Costco wholesales, in line with the business focus while limiting to itÃ¢â¬â¢s supply chain operations strategy for maintaining a competitive edge as it relates to SC operations (from sourcing to arrival on pallets and or display at their various warehouses racks), their challenges and options for improvement will be the focus of this report. The following issues will form questions that will give a frame for this report: Ã¢â¬ ¢ What are the key issues facing Costco in line with (efficient) Supply Chain Operations? Ã¢â¬ ¢ What would be options to compete with these issues?Ã Ã¢â¬ ¢ Which options best suits the business focus and would yield better growth financially? The sections thereafter will consider trying to answer the questions above by applying SWOT analysis (see appendix 1) and PorterÃ¢â¬â¢s five forces framework (see appendix 2). Areas needing improvement will be obvious from such, options that would generate better performance after localizing issues peculiar to Costco. These would ultimately lead to clear recommendations for CostcoÃ¢â¬â¢s improvement. Due to inaccessibility of authentic and current data for successive years on sales, further analysis could not be carried out to compare Costco for accurate sales assessment in the last three years or compare with the other two leading club wholesalers (SamÃ¢â¬â¢s & BJs). Identifying, analyzing key parameters with Supply chain operations processes at Costco and suggest areas of possible improvement. Inventory Management: Since good are moved straight to the selling floor and inventory is not held by Costco but managed by vendors, inventory & labor cost of handling is avoided. In their meat & grocery section for instance, they focus on low-price & high volume strategies hence, Costco carry very limited amounts of grocery & perishables whereas Wal-Mart is known to have weakness in the area of perishables (Petrak, 2006) Partnership/Collaboration with suppliers: Costco has buying relationships with many producers of national brands and are supplied directly from suppliers routing to the warehouses of docking points that serve as distribution points. Partnership market is an attribute of Costco, for instance by partnering with American Express to create a Costco-AMEX credit card, discounts & cash cards as offered to customers while Costco markets Amex cards, thereby helping them to acquire more customers. Distribution Strategies/Transportation: The redesign of product packages to fit into pallets and thereby maximize space has led to reduction of trucks used to transport goods. Cross-docking of goods by delivering directly to Costco stores while some are kept in the distribution centers saves a lot of time & cost along the SC. Utilization of buzzers for truck drives at delivery points to indicate when trucks have been unloaded can save time as against the truck driverÃ¢â¬â¢s physical movement within the warehouse is a time saver. Their warehouses are not situated on prime locations hence cost is saved from unnecessary high property cost; again, they own over 80% of the warehouses. Green Logistics: Costco Kirkland signature has launched eco friendly cleaning products. It maximizes the use of solar power in itÃ¢â¬â¢s warehouses, itÃ¢â¬â¢s delivery trucks are better packaged to allow maximization of space so as to reduce fleets of transportation and hence environmental pollution. Energy is better conserved with timed lighting and construction of warehouses that can maximize skylight during the day. Food products are packaged in recyclable and more environmentally friendly materials. Customers are paid to recycle their old electronics at the green sight. Information Technology: This retailer prides itself in itÃ¢â¬â¢s connection of all warehouses to the headquarters in Washington. By using the EFIM which provides real time information, manages control systems and inventory management system. The ECR is used to achieve profitability, improvement in efficiency, logistics, procurement and overall cost control. Kumar (2008) records that approximately $6 billion in a year is lost in the USA by supermarkets due to out of stock products among 25 top retailers as a result of inefficiency in their logistics. Vertical Integration: Costco practices a partial vertical integration with itÃ¢â¬â¢s cross-dock distribution. By gaining control of either its inputs or its outputs or both in sourcing directly from suppliers they have more control over innovation & delivery of those services. Cost is also reduced which is ultimately transferred to customers. Further optimization of operational performance through SC operations options that can sustain a competitive edge and improve customer satisfaction through service improvement and cost reduction. 4. Description Of The Separate Areas 4.1Description of The SC Operations Performance & Improvement. The measurement of SC performance can be based on profit, customer service or sales maximization (Chow, 1994). While the traditional method majorly measured product costs, identification of costs related to customer service is key. Elimination of various extraneous costs like plastic shopping bags, fewer shop floor staff, limited product variety & brands on shelf and also slowing down on capital expenditure like expansion, Costco has been able to focus on improving buying power for achieving greater output. Since inventory rates are quickly turned over, payments to suppliers is fast tracked hence they are able to benefit from discounted early payments. Cost is involved in sourcing products from suppliers, shipment to depots & warehouses, distribution to warehouses & storage in inventory. By considering the concept of avoidable cost (possibly considering packaging & storage), efforts can be made to improve on SC performance by implementing better SC integration program. Partnering with more suppliers and or service providers for better flow of operations as well as building keener competition can enhance better efficiency leading to more profit in the long run. More side business services can be added at Costco like money order and cash transfers to attract more customers and make Costco a one stop store. Aside from email messages being sent to existing members on promotions, greater awareness can create a more organized means to lure more customers on the expanding array of products & services such that new & more revenue streams are attained. 4.2 Issues Affecting Supply Chain and Possible Solutions Analysis of SC at Costco using SWOT analysis (appendix 1) reveals Costco is doing really well. Growth opportunities exist for business by entering the European & Asian markets as these have not been exploited. From present methods of operations, the high staff salary and low margins maintenance amongst other issues need to be looked into for future prospects. The aging and close exit of the CEO along with growing competition and other threats in intended foreign markets such as political and religious wars, foreign exchange & bank issues are threats to consider. In dealing with these issues, it will be important to assess briefly lead time management, product handling, transportation, quality, inventory as well as possible process solutions. Where possible, promotions should be done to enhance more sales though with the low prices and already highlighted low margin & high employee, this may eat into the profitability but if well planned can create more publicity for the company which can yield quick inventory turnover. Since low overhead & tight operation is the practice, better savings can be passed on to customers in form of promotion or otherwise. Exploration of overseas market is still a strong force and will yield greater profit considering the existing reputation Costco has and understudying how business is executed in such regions. Development of more private labels on wider product range and increased focus on customer loyalty programs are worth considering as well. It is advisable the board of management put in place a business plan before the exit/retirement of the CEO. PorterÃ¢â¬â¢s Five Forces analysis (see appendix 2) could identify an overall attractive industry, with the following power and threat situation: The buyer power was determined to have a positive potential impact on Costco business as it portray that buyers have the requisite level of expendable incomes to provide effective demand for goods & services. In a similar manner, low threat of new entrants and substitute products portray an attractive industry whereas moderate internal rivalry and supplier power have a positive impact on Costco operations as it kept the company alert and devoid of complacency. 4.3 Analyzing The Contribution Of SCOM to Competitive Business Performance To further highlight the role of SCOM in enhancing business performance and maintaining a competitive edge, a few activities like volume purchasing, efficient packaging & distribution, supplier integration & customer integration have contributed to give a close picture of Costco capabilities and business level performance with each activity having unique benefits and detriments. Again, constant review of SCM practices may further help management in Costco to further match demand with SC requirements like efficient, lean SC (Cook et al , 2011). Their Network design, JIT resource planning distribution, optimization of transport & replenishment policies have impacted positively and should be subject to constant review for sustaining a competitive edge. 5. Conclusion Finally, it is believed that some useful contributions are being developed to improve supply chain and itÃ¢â¬â¢s operation in line with the objective of Costco in delivering quality at lowest cost to customers on time with the aim of sustaining a more competitive advantage. Some useful SC options have been suggested above which support these objectives. While the ultimate goal remains to sustainably increase market share by achieving more qualitative growth and at the same time expand on the earning base through exploitation of the European market and already existing markets, Mascarehas et al (2004) adds that Ã¢â¬Å"competitive advantage must be won again and againÃ¢â¬ in other words, giving the current ever changing business world we live in, customer tastes and priorities are changing hence the need for Costco to be better positioned in order to respond always to itÃ¢â¬â¢s members needs while expanding on new fronts.
Saturday, November 9, 2019
Discursive about keeping animals in zoos and parks essays Is it right or wrong? Is it Humane and safe or cruel and devastating to keep animals in zoos and safari parks? In this essay I will discuss these points and give my own opinion. Foremost we shall look at points against animals being in zoos and safari parks. Many animals are taken from their natural environments, and placed into cages so people can stare at them all day. In addition to this many animals may be come ill with zoochosis were the animal will sit and rock backwards and forwards all day. Another argument against animals being kept in zoos and safari parks is that if the animal is taken out of its natural habitat for too long and then put back not only will it have lost many of its natural skills, but it will usually be killed by other animals as well. Essentially zoos remain collections of animals, denied their freedom simply to provide the public a "good" day out. Another point to make is that Stereotypic behavior is an indication of chronic suffering caused by frustration, boredom, depression and anxiety. In the wild, animals react to their surroundings. They spend their time avoiding enemies, seeking food and interacting with their own spec ies, mating, socializing. Animals do not find this stressful; they are designed to cope with the wild. On the contrary, it is the controlled, limited captive environment that is stressful. Behavioral abnormalities occur because of these restrictions. Also, animals within close proximity to the public may become anxious, frustrated, bored, scared, and alone. But there is another side to the argument and that is for animals being kept in zoos and safari parks. You can argue that zoos are good in the way that it helps to save endangered species with breeding programs. Zoos and safari parks are educational to everyone. The animals are ambassadors of the wildlife showing people how great they are which may begin to save animals by people not buying anything that has be...
Wednesday, November 6, 2019
The Treatment of the Slaves The Europeans did not care how they treated Africans on the ships. The conditions on the ships were horrible; I do not know how the Africans survive the trip across the Atlantic. The food the Europeans fed the Africans was disgusting. Being chained together side by side the Europeans abused their own Humanity the way they treated the slaves. They believe that Africa was a savage land, that Africans had never known any reasonable social order of their own. That African slave deserved no better than they got. In centuries a total of fifteen million men, women and children of African blood were delivered into transatlantic slavery, under conditions so hideous that another nine million are estimated to have died during the crossing. In the worst ships, in which the slave-holds were not property aired. The slaves were not properly fed and exercised, in which the crews were bestial and drunken. 'Nowhere in the annals of history has a people experienced such a long and traumatic ordeal as Africans during the Atlantic slave trade. Over the nearly four centuries of the slave - which continued until the end of the Civil War - millions of African men, women, and children were savagely torn from their homeland, herded onto ships, and dispersed all over the so-called New World. Although there is no way to compute exactly how many people perished, it has been estimated that between thirty and sixty million Africans were subjected to this horrendous triangular trade system and that only one third-if that-of those people survived...' The triangular trade system was so named because the ships embarked from European ports, stopped in Africa to gather the captives, after which they set out for the New World to deliver their human cargo, and then returned to the port of origin. The Middle Passage was that leg of the slave triangle that brought the human cargo from West Africa to North America, South Ameri... Free Essays on Slave Treatment Free Essays on Slave Treatment The Treatment of the Slaves The Europeans did not care how they treated Africans on the ships. The conditions on the ships were horrible; I do not know how the Africans survive the trip across the Atlantic. The food the Europeans fed the Africans was disgusting. Being chained together side by side the Europeans abused their own Humanity the way they treated the slaves. They believe that Africa was a savage land, that Africans had never known any reasonable social order of their own. That African slave deserved no better than they got. In centuries a total of fifteen million men, women and children of African blood were delivered into transatlantic slavery, under conditions so hideous that another nine million are estimated to have died during the crossing. In the worst ships, in which the slave-holds were not property aired. The slaves were not properly fed and exercised, in which the crews were bestial and drunken. 'Nowhere in the annals of history has a people experienced such a long and traumatic ordeal as Africans during the Atlantic slave trade. Over the nearly four centuries of the slave - which continued until the end of the Civil War - millions of African men, women, and children were savagely torn from their homeland, herded onto ships, and dispersed all over the so-called New World. Although there is no way to compute exactly how many people perished, it has been estimated that between thirty and sixty million Africans were subjected to this horrendous triangular trade system and that only one third-if that-of those people survived...' The triangular trade system was so named because the ships embarked from European ports, stopped in Africa to gather the captives, after which they set out for the New World to deliver their human cargo, and then returned to the port of origin. The Middle Passage was that leg of the slave triangle that brought the human cargo from West Africa to North America, South Ameri...
Monday, November 4, 2019
Team building - Essay Example need is to develop skills of team building within the organizations through training and development comprised of several activities and case studies that will exemplify significance of team building in various situations. Team building helps to develop leadership within the organizations and derives synergic effects into the organizations as well. It saves time as well as efforts because of effective behavioral change that occurs due to team building. The proposed cost of the program includes administrative cost and training and education material cost. Administrative cost covers all expenses that include venue preparation, financial reporting, secretarial work and cost of trainers. Other cost includes training tools, kits and relevant handouts. The primary objective of team building program is to enhance productivity of non-profit organizations through developing certain skills of coordination to work with other members of the organization. The goal is to render the non-profit organizations more effective in delivering their philanthropic services. The culture of working in teams has to be nurtured in such organizations to let them work better. Certain case studies will be highlighted that will portray importance of working in teams and that will also signify team building values and critical situations that can be handled effectively with the help of team
Saturday, November 2, 2019
How the Black Panthers - Essay Example The street gangs of the 1960Ã¢â¬â¢s were the result of the frustration of black youngsters against whites, who did not welcome them in their neighborhoods. The BPP called upon the black youth to rise in self defense and proclaimed the U.S. government as its enemy. Gangs have been a part of the culture of America ever since the 1800Ã¢â¬â¢s but the street gang subculture is constantly evolving, so as to conform to prevailing conditions. The leaders of one of these small street gangs, the Slausons, founded the Los Angeles arm of the Black Panther Party (BPP). Soon the rowdy gang culture was being shaped into an overtly political agenda. In 1969, Carter and Huggins, the leaders of the Los Angeles BPP were killed in a gun battle on the UCLA campus during a face-off with members of the United Slaves, a rival gang. These murders triggered a massive FBI retaliation, which led to the disbanding of the BPP. With the BPP no longer in existence, black youth scoured for newer gangs, and at this point Raymond Washington rallied them together under the banner, Baby Avenues or Baby Cribs. With time, the Cribs evolved into Crips in the local vernacular. Washington recruited a large number of members into his gang and in 1971, formed the Westside Crips by me rging his rival TookieÃ¢â¬â¢s gang with his own. The name Crips stands for Ã¢â¬Å"Continuous Revolution in ProgressÃ¢â¬ and this gang had the fearlessness of the Panthers, combined with their rebellious attitude (Davis, Mike; City of Quartz, PP.293-300). Members of Crips gang identify themselves by wearing blue bandanas. When the Crips began to expand, it led to conflicts with other gangs and during a summer conflict in 1972, between the Crips and Pirus gang, the Crips won. The Pirus and other small gangs of the area came together to form a separate organization called the Bloods, and began to sport red bandanas. Just like the BPP, these gangs were formed to protect black people